Hacerse, volverse, ponerse and other verbs of change in Spanish.
Remember these verbs and phrasal verbs (apart from llegar a ser) are reflexive. This means that you need to use the following pronouns:
Me (I) / Te (you) / se (she/he/it) / nos (we) /os (you guys) /se (they)
The verb in whatever tense you choose.
Ok, let's dive into it!
Usually, happens after a process of some kind, it's usually used with more or less permanent nouns (that we use "ser" for) and it's mostly on purpose.
Ex: Se hizo comunista - he/she became a communist.
Ex: Me hice católica - I became catholic.
Ex: Mi abuela se hizo muy mayor – My grandma became very old.
Ex: Se hizo médico – He/she became doctors.
Ex: Se hizo tarde – It became late.
Sometimes, a more or less permanent quality on people.
Ex: * Ella se ha hecho muy vaga* - She has become very lazy.
Usually involuntary change
The result is quite permanent, therefore adjectives we would use "ser" for.
- Personality traits
Ex: Se volvió muy celoso - He became very jealous.
- Take on cultural habits that are not your own
Ex: Te volviste española - You became Spanish. - You started to eat,act,live like a Spaniard.
This can overlap with the hacerse when used for qualities in people, but volverse sounds a bit less voluntary. Otherwise, they're pretty similar in those situations.
More or less permanent qualities on inanimate nouns
Ex: Se volvió difícil despedir a mis empleados - It became difficult to fire my employees.
Ex: Los productos se vuelven más baratos con el tiempo - The products become cheaper with time.
The result is quite temporary, and about things that can happen almost daily, therefore usually these are adjectives we would use "estar" with.
Ex: Me puse enferma – I got sick.
Ex: Te pusiste muy triste – You got very sad
Ex2: The expression “ponerse rojo/colorado” – to blush.
State of inanimate nouns
Ex: La comida se puso mala - The food went bad
Ex: La situación se pone seria - The situation gets serious
Appearance. On the same topic as to "ponerse ropa" - to put on clothes.
Ex: Se puso muy guapa– She made herself pretty.
This includes "ponerse moreno/a" - to get tanned
Mostly an unexpected change as a reaction of something that happened.
- Adjectives for states (widow, pregnant, blind, deaf, orphan, disable, etc) or behaviour/reaction.
When it goes with a reaction, it can be translated usually as "getting + adjective".
Ex: Se quedó viuda – She became a widow.
Ex: Se quedaron callados – They got quiet.
Ex: Me quedé embarazada – I got pregnant.
Ex: Me quedé sorprendida – I was surprised.
LLEGAR A SER:
Voluntary and wanted change
It usually happens after a long time and effort
You can maybe translate it as "gets to be"
Nouns (usually jobs).
Ex: Llegó a ser presidente - He became the president.
Ex2: Llegué a ser abogada - I became a lawyer.
Ex: Llegasteis a ser ricos y famosos – You guys became rich and famous.
CONVERTIRSE EN / TRANSFORMARSE EN
Deep big change, changing the identity or even biology of the said thing, with neutral or positive connotations
Nouns - Without adjective after:
Ex: El capullo se convirtió en una mariposa – The cocoon became a butterfly.
With adjective after: Ex: Se convirtió en una persona importante – He/she became an important person.
Hasta luego! :)